Lotsch Research Group - Faculty for Chemistry and Pharmacy

Functional Metal Organic and Covalent Organic Frameworks

The chemistry of porous frameworks has undergone a renaissance in recent years, driven by the prospect of realizing complex supramolecular architectures by directed self-assembly of tailor-made molecular building blocks. We pursue a bottom-up approach towards 2D and 3D organic and metal-organic frameworks (COFs and MOFs) as well as carbon nitrides by using dynamic covalent chemistry and fine-tuning of their properties by chemical design. Focal areas include the synthesis of highly porous and chemically robust framework architectures for thermal and photocatalysis, optoelectronics, and energy storage applications. Instrumental to our work is an in-depth understanding of the real structure of the frameworks and the nature of defects, along with the principles governing framework formation. We address these questions using local and long-range spectroscopic and diffraction techniques as well as in situ diffraction methods.

Key Publications

Understanding disorder and linker deficiency in porphyrinic zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks by resolving the Zr8O6 cluster conundrum in PCN-221
C. Koschnick, R. Stäglich, T. Scholz, M.W. Terban, A. v. Mankowski, G. Savasci, F. Binder, A. Schökel, M. Etter, J. Nuss, R. Siegel, L.S. Germann, C. Ochsenfeld, R.E. Dinnebier, J. Senker, B.V. Lotsch 
Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 3099. Article

In Situ Monitoring of Mechanochemical Covalent Organic Framework Formation Reveals Templating Effect of Liquid Additive 
S.T. Emmerling, L.S. Germann, P.A. Julien, I. Moudrakovski, M. Etter, T. Friščić, R.E. Dinnebier, B.V. Lotsch 
Chem. 2021, 7, 1639–1652. Article

Amine-linked Covalent Organic Frameworks as a Platform for Post-Synthetic Structure Interconversion and Pore-Wall-Modification 
L. Grunenberg, G. Savasci, M.W. Terban, V. Duppel, I. Moudrakovski, M. Etter, R.E. Dinnebier, C. Ochsenfeld, B.V. Lotsch 
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021143, 3430–3438. Article

Morphology Control in 2D Carbon Nitrides: Impact of Particle Size on Optoelectronic Properties and Photocatalysis
J. Kröger, A. Jiménez-Solano, G. Savasci, V.W.-h. Lau, V. Duppel, I. Moudrakovski, K. Küster, T. Scholz, A. Gouder, M.-L. Schreiber, F. Podjaski, C. Ochsenfeld, B.V. Lotsch.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 31, 2102468. Article

Solving the COF Trilemma: Towards crystalline, stable and functional covalent organic frameworks
F. Haase, B.V. Lotsch
Chem. Soc. Rev. 2020, 49, 8469–8500. Article

Total scattering reveals the hidden stacking disorder in a 2D covalent organic framework
A.M. Pütz, M.W. Terban, S. Bette, F. Haase, R.E. Dinnebier, B.V. Lotsch
Chem. Sci. 2020, 11, 12647–12654. Article

Ionothermal Synthesis of Imide‐Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks
J. Maschita, T. Banerjee, G. Savasci, F. Haase, C. Ochsenfeld, B.V. Lotsch
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 15750–15758. Article

Rational Design of Covalent Cobaloxime-COF Hybrids for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution
K. Gottschling, G. Savasci, H.A. Vignolo-González, S. Schmidt, P. Mauker, T. Banerjee, P. Rovó, C. Ochsenfeld, B.V. Lotsch
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 12146–12156. Article

Sub-stoichiometric 2D Covalent Organic Frameworks from Tri- and Tetratopic Linkers 
T. Banerjee, F. Haase, S. Trenker, B. Biswal, G. Savasci, V. Duppel, I. Moudrakovski, C. Ochsenfeld, B.V. Lotsch 
Nat. Commun. 201910, 2689. Article

Sustained Solar H2 Evolution from a Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-Bridged Covalent Organic Framework and Nickel-Thiolate Cluster in Water 
B.P. Biswal, H.A. Vignolo-González, T. Banerjee, L. Grunenberg, G. Savasci, K. Gottschling, J. Nuss, C. Ochsenfeld, B.V. Lotsch 
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019141, 11082–11092. Article

A tunable azine covalent organic framework platform for visible light-induced hydrogen generation
V. S. Vyas, F. Haase, L. Stegbauer, G. Savasci, F. Podjaski, C. Ochsenfeld, B. V. Lotsch
Nat. Commun. 2015, 6, 8508. Article

A hydrazone-based covalent organic framework for photocatalytic hydrogen production
L. Stegbauer, K. Schwinghammer, B. V. Lotsch
Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 2789–2793. Article